Working fluid with the equivalent viscosity of turbine oil in petroleum lubricant is selected. There are two types of turbine oil: turbine oil without additives (first type) and with additives (second type). The second type contains anti-rust additives and antioxidants, etc. Working fluids manufactured under the following are widely used. 1) JIS K 2213 second type: turbine oil with additives—ISO VG32, VG46, VG68, 2) specialized working fluid “R&0” type with a viscosity equivalent to turbine oil with additives, and 3)“AW (anti-wear)” type.
Selection of working fluid is based upon the general characteristics of fluid (specific gravity, color, flash point, viscosity, total acid number, etc.) and upon data from special tests (lubricity, oxidation stability, stability of shear- ability, etc.); both of the characteristics and the data are presented by manufacturers to users and manufactures of hydraulic equipment. Users need to select proper working fluid, taking into consideration the suitability of the fluid for the equipment and its durability. General characteristics are guidelines for users and assure the quality and standard value of each working fluid. These characteristics and data are also used to compare old and new working fluids; the continuous use shall be determined by comparing the degree of fluid deterioration. Table 14.2 gives examples of general characteristics of petroleum-based fluid.
Users should consult federal, state and local laws for regulations concerning the handling of petroleum based fluid. In Japan, handling of petroleum-based fluid and hydraulic equipment with specified reservoir sizes is regulated by “hazardous substance class 4” in the Fire Service Law. For instance, class 4 petroleum in hazardous substance class 4 is regulated when the total volume of the oil is 6 000 litters (1 585 gal) or more.
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