Definition of terms, Mass and force

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Definition of terms, Mass and force

Pneumatic and hydraulic systems generally rely on pressure in a fluid. Before we can discuss definitions of pressure, though, we must first be clear what is meant by everyday terms such as weight, mass and force. We all are used to the idea of weight, which is a force arising from gravitational attraction between the …

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System Comparison, A pneumatic system

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System Comparison, A pneumatic system

Figure 1.3 shows the components of a pneumatic system. The basic actuator is again a cylinder, with maximum force on the shaft being determined by air pressure and piston cross sectional area. Operating pressures in pneumatic systems are generally much lower than those in a hydraulic systems; 10 bar being typical which will lift 10 …

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System Comparison, A hydraulic system

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System Comparison, A hydraulic system

A solution along hydraulic lines is shown in Figure 1.2. A hydraulic linear actuator suitable for this application is the ram, shown schematically in Figure 1.2a. This consists of a movable piston connected directly to the output shaft. If fluid is pumped into pipe A the piston will move up and the shaft will extend; …

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System Comparison, An electrical system

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System Comparison, An electrical system

With an electrical system we have three basic choices; a solenoid, a DC motor or the ubiquitous workhorse of industry, the AC induction motor. Of these, the solenoid produces a linear stroke directly but its stroke is normally limited to a maximum distance of around 100 mm. Both DC and AC motors are rotary devices …

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